Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a
nondegenerative, non-congenital insult to the brain from an external mechanical
force. The definition of TBI is not fixed, but it is often synonymous
with head injury.
Traumatic brain injury usually results from a heavy blow, bump
or concussive force to the head or body, or an object that penetrates brain
tissue in rare circumstances, such as a bullet or shattered piece of skull. It
or temporary damage the patient’s cognitive, physical, and psychosocial
functions and state of consciousness, possibly leading to long-term
complications or death.
Traumatic brain injury in the leading cause of death and disability in the U.S. It is estimated that 1.5 million Americans sustain a TBI per year. Every day, 153 people in the United States die from injuries that include TBI.
Traumatic brain injury is caused by a
severe blow to the head, or a traumatic injury that penetrates and disrupts
normal brain function. Common event leading to TBI include the following:
The most common
cause of traumatic brain injury is all kinds of falls from different places,
such as a bed or ladder. Children and the elderly are the main victims.
- Vehicle-related collisions
involving motor vehicles and pedestrians involved in transportation accidents are
a common cause of traumatic brain injury.
domestic violence, child abuse and other assaults are common causes.
- Sports injuries
A number of
sports, including soccer, boxing, football and skateboarding may put the
participants at the risk of getting traumatic brain injuries.
- Explosive blasts and other combat injuries
Explosive blasts are a common cause of traumatic brain
injury in active-duty military personnel.
A bullet or
shattered piece of skull will penetrate into the brain tissues and cause
traumatic brain injury.
- Being struck by
or colliding with an object
A collision with either an object, moving or not, accounts for 15 percent of traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury has wide-ranging temporary or permanent symptoms.
traumatic brain injury:
- An immediate loss of consciousness
- A state of being dazed, confused or disoriented
- Nausea or vomiting
- Fatigue or drowsiness
- Problems with speech
- Difficulty sleeping
- Dizziness or loss of balance
- Sensory problems
- Sensitivity to light or sound
- Memory or concentration problems
- Mood changes
- Depression or anxiety
severe traumatic brain injuries
- Loss of consciousness for several minutes or hours
- Persistent headache
- Repeated vomiting or nausea
- Convulsions or seizures
- Dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes
- Clear fluids draining from the nose or ears
- Inability to awaken from sleep
- Weakness or numbness in fingers and toes
- Loss of coordination
- Profound confusion
- Agitation, aggression or other unusual behaviors
- Slurred speech
- Coma and other disorders of consciousness
Early diagnosis is crucial to prevent
potentially life-threatening complications of TBI. There are a few useful tools
for diagnosing TBI:
- The Glasgow Coma Scale
GCS is commonly used to assess the likelihood and severity of brain damage after a head injury.
- Imaging scans
MRI or CT imaging scans of the brain will help determine the existence and location of any brain injury or damage.
Angiography may be used to detect any blood
vessel problems, particularly after a penetrating head trauma.
The results of EEG can ascertain a patient’s non-convulsive
seizures by measuring the electrical activity within the brain.
- Neurocognitive tests
These tests can help assess any loss of memory or ability to process thoughts.
Emergency Treatment for TBI
Emergency care may include:
- Ensuring adequate oxygen flow to the brain
- Controlling blood pressure
- Preventing further injury to the head or neck.
Additional surgery may include:
- Removing clotted blood
- Repairing skull fractures
- Relieving pressure in the skull
These medications may include, but are not limited to:
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Muscle relaxants
Treatment programs should be personalized to the needs of the individual. Generally, rehabilitation can include several different kinds of therapy for physical, emotional, and cognitive difficulties.