Reference range of Estradiol (E2) is:
- Men: 50 ~ 200pmol/L
- Female: follicular phase: 94 ~ 433pmol/L; luteal stage: 499 ~ 1580pmol/L; ovulation period: 704 ~ 2200pmol/L; menopause: 40 ~ 100pmol/L.
Increased levels of estradiol (E2) or estrone (E1) are seen in:
- Girls and Women:
Early (precocious) puberty
Tumors of the ovary or adrenal glands
- Boys and Men:
Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)
Tumors of the testicles (testicular cancer) or adrenal glands
Both Women and Men:
In women, decreased levels of estrogen are seen in:
- Turner syndrome, an inherited condition in women caused by a missing or abnormal X chromosome and characterized by underdeveloped female sex characteristics.
- Low level of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism).
- Dysfunction of the ovaries (female hypogonadism).
- Failing pregnancy (estriol) .
- Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.
- After menopause (estradiol) .
- PCOS (Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Stein-Leventhal syndrome) .
- Extreme endurance exercise.