Enoxaparin: Uses, Side Effects

Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant that helps
prevent the formation of blood clots.

Enoxaparin is used to treat or prevent a
type of blood clot called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can lead to blood
clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). A DVT can occur after certain types of
surgery, or in people who are bed-ridden due to a prolonged illness.

Enoxaparin is also used to prevent blood
vessel complications in people with certain types of angina (chest pain) or
heart attack.

Enoxaparin may also be used for purposes
not listed in this medication guide.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use enoxaparin if you are
allergic to enoxaparin, heparin, benzyl alcohol, or pork products, or if you
have:

  • active or uncontrolled bleeding; or
  • if you had decreased platelets in your blood after testing positive
    for a certain antibody while using enoxaparin within the past 100 days.

Enoxaparin may cause you to bleed more
easily, especially if you have:

  • a bleeding disorder that is inherited or caused by disease;
  • hemorrhagic stroke;
  • an infection of the lining of your heart (also called bacterial
    endocarditis);
  • stomach or intestinal bleeding or ulcer; or
  • recent brain, spine, or eye surgery.

Enoxaparin can cause a very serious blood
clot around your spinal cord if you undergo a spinal tap or receive spinal
anesthesia (epidural). This type of blood clot could cause long-term or
permanent paralysis, and may be more likely to occur if:

  • you have a spinal cord injury;
  • you have a spinal catheter in place or if a catheter has been
    recently removed;
  • you have a history of spinal surgery or repeated spinal taps;
  • you have recently had a spinal tap or epidural anesthesia;
  • you take aspirin or an NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)–ibuprofen
    (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, and
    others; or
  • you are using a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin) or other
    medicines to treat or prevent blood clots.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had:

  • a bleeding disorder such as hemophilia;
  • kidney or liver disease;
  • uncontrolled high blood pressure;
  • eye problems caused by diabetes;
  • a stomach ulcer; or
  • low blood platelets after receiving heparin.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant. If
you use enoxaparin during pregnancy, make sure your doctor knows if you have a
mechanical heart valve.

It may not be safe to breast-feed while
using this medicine. Ask your doctor about any risk.

Side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have
signs of an allergic reaction: hives; itching or burning skin; difficult
breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Also seek emergency medical attention if
you have symptoms of a spinal blood clot: back pain, numbness or muscle
weakness in your lower body, or loss of bladder or bowel control.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • unusual bleeding, or any bleeding that will not stop;
  • easy bruising, purple or red spots under your skin;
  • nosebleeds, bleeding gums;
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding, blood in your urine or stools;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • signs of bleeding in the brain–sudden weakness (especially on one
    side of the body), sudden severe headache, problems with speech or vision; or
  • low red blood cells (anemia)–pale skin, unusual tiredness, feeling
    light-headed or short of breath, cold hands and feet.

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, diarrhea;
  • anemia;
  • confusion; or
  • pain, bruising, redness, or irritation where the medicine was
    injected.

This is not a complete list of side effects
and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

What other drugs will affect enoxaparin?

Tell your doctor about all your other
medicines, especially other medicines to treat or prevent blood clots, such as:

  • abciximab, anagrelide, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole,
    eptifibatide, ticlopidine, tirofiban;
  • alteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase, urokinase;
  • apixaban, argatroban, bivalirudin, dabigatran, desirudin,
    fondaparinux, lepirudin, rivaroxaban, tinzaparin; or
  • heparin.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect enoxaparin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.

Keyword: enoxaparin.

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