Cerebral Edema: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Overview

Cerebral edema, also called brain edema or brain swelling,
refers to a life-threatening condition with fluid developing in the brain.

Cerebral edema increases pressure inside the skull. That’s known as intracranial pressure, or ICP. Increased ICP can reduce brain blood flow and decrease the oxygen that makes the brain to function properly. Swelling can also block other fluids from leaving the brain, resulting in severe damage or death of brain cells. If left untreated, cerebral edema can be extremely fatal.

Causes

There are several
factors that can cause brain swelling. They include:

  • Traumatic brain
    injury (TBI).

A TBI causes damage to the brain. Physical contact
and falls can cause the brain to swell.

  • Stroke.

Some cases of stroke can cause brain swelling, specifically an ischemic stroke.

  • Infection diseases

Some diseases like mumps, malaria, Reyes syndrome,
typhus and Kawasaki disease. can cause brain inflammation and swelling,
especially if left untreated.

  • Tumors

Brain tumors can add pressure to areas of the brain, causing the surrounding brain to swell.

Other causes of
brain swelling include:

  • high altitude
  • unhealthy use of drugs
  • viral infections
  • carbon monoxide poisoning
  • bites from poisonous animals, reptiles, and some marine animals
  • an impact to the brain, such as through a traumatic brain injury, hypertension, and eclampsia.
  • excessive pressure around the brain, which is from an impaired blood flow.

Symptoms

The earliest indication of cerebral edema is a
change in the patient’s consciousness. Its level may differ at any given time that
the disease sets in.
Other signs of Cerebral Edema may include:

  • confusion
  • nausea
  • lack of coordination
  • numbness
  • dizziness

Some indications of cerebral edema after an injury
or infection include:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • lack of coordination
  • numbness

In more severe cases
of cerebral edema, you may experience symptoms including:

  • mood changes
  • memory loss
  • difficulty speaking
  • incontinence
  • change in behavior or personality
  • seizures
  • weakness

The symptoms mentioned above may progress rapidly, so immediate diagnosis and effective treatment are necessary.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis for cerebral edema depends
on the specific symptoms, the underlying cause, as well as the severity and location
of the swelling.

Common exams and
tests used in the diagnosis include:

  • physical exam, including head and neck exam, and neurologic exam, to detect pain, discomfort, or abnormalities
  • CT scan of the head to identify the extent and location of the swelling
  • head MRI to identify the location of the swelling
  • blood tests to determine the cause of swelling

Treatment

Minor cases of
brain swelling often resolve within a few days. In most cases, however, more
treatment is needed quickly.

Common treatment options
for cerebral edema may include:

  • Medications

Depending on the severity of your condition and the
underlying cause, different medications are prescribed to relieve the swelling and to express the excess amount of fluid.

  • Osmotherapy

Osmotherapy is a technique meant to draw water
out of the brain.

  • Hyperventilation

Some doctors may perform a controlled hyperventilation to help lower the patient’s ICP.

  • Hypothermia

Hypothermia means
lowering the body temperature to decrease

metabolism in the brain and reduce
swelling.

  • Ventriculostomy

This involves draining fluid from the brain to
relieve ICP pressure.

  • Surgery

This surgery could mean removing part of the skull or removing the source of the swelling, such as in the case of a tumor. This is usually the last resort in more severe cases.

Keywords: cerebral edema.

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