Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the main intravesical immunotherapy for early stage bladder cancer. It’s made from a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, a vaccine for tuberculosis.
Immunotherapy is used to prompt the immune system into attacking cancer cells. BCG is a liquid drug that can be deposited directly into your bladder through a catheter. Doctors have been using this method of treating superficial bladder cancer for 40 years.
Continue reading to learn more about BCG, how it’s used, and what you can expect of treatment.
BCG is appropriate for noninvasive (stage 0) and minimally invasive (stage 1) bladder cancers. It usually follows a procedure called transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). It’s intended to help prevent recurrence.
This treatment only affects cells inside the bladder. It’s not useful for later stage bladder cancer that has spread into or beyond the bladder lining, or to other tissues and organs.
It’s important that you follow your doctor’s instructions for what to do before and after the procedure. Tell your doctor about all the medications you take. Certain immunosuppressants, antimicrobial therapies, and radiation therapies can interfere with BCG treatment.
You’ll be advised to limit your fluid intake for four hours prior to the procedure. You might be told to avoid caffeine for a few hours longer than that, because it’s a diuretic and could make things more difficult.
You’ll be asked to urinate just before the procedure so you’ll be able to hold the medication in your bladder for several hours.
A urinary catheter is inserted through your urethra and into your bladder. Then the BCG solution is injected into the catheter. The catheter is clamped off so the solution stays in your bladder. Some doctors may remove the catheter at this time.
You have to hold the medicine in your bladder. You’ll be instructed to lie on your back and to roll from side to side to make sure the solution reaches your entire bladder.
After about two hours, the catheter is unclamped so the fluid can be drained. If the catheter was already removed, you’ll be asked to empty your bladder at this time.
You may be advised to drink plenty of fluid to flush the rest of the medication from your bladder.
For six hours after each treatment, you’ll have to be very careful when you urinate to avoid transmitting BCG to others. Men should urinate while seated to avoid splashing.
Disinfect the urine by adding 2 cups of bleach into the toilet. Let it stand for about 20 minutes before flushing. You should also wash your genital area very carefully after you urinate, so your skin doesn’t become irritated from the BCG. Wash your hands thoroughly, too.
Men can pass BCG to their partner during sex. For that reason, you should avoid sex for 48 hours after each treatment. Use a condom between treatments and for six weeks following your final treatment.
Women should avoid getting pregnant or breastfeeding while on BCG therapy.
Treatment is usually given every week for six weeks. After that, you might need to do it once a month for six months to a year.
One benefit of BCG is that while it affects the cells in your bladder, it doesn’t have a major effect on any other part of your body. But there can be a few side effects such as:
- a burning sensation in the bladder
- urinary urgency or frequent urination
- blood in the urine
Tell your doctor if symptoms last more than a few days.
It’s rare, but BCG can spread through the body and cause a serious infection. Symptoms of this include:
- fever that doesn’t respond to aspirin or other fever reducers
- dizziness or lightheadedness
- shortness of breath
Serious complications of this infection include inflammation of the lungs, hepatitis, and inflammation of the prostate and testicles. If you have any sign of serious infection, seek immediate medical attention.